Ṭarīqah ASMA
Ḥaḍrat Sulṭān Bāhū
Mark A. Foster, Ph.D.
Dedicated to my dear sister

O Glory of the All-Glorious!

My personal prototype, or ideal type, for devotion is the Bhakti or Bhakti-Ṣūfī movement of South Asia, including the Indus Valley. I briefly discuss that historical movement’s spiritual impact in two Internet radio broadcasts (MP3 audio file 1 and MP3 audio file 2). The movement’ influence upon South Asia, and even in the Western world, has endured to the present time. Moreover, this stirring copresence of the heart (al-qalb) was formalized in the Sikhism of Gurū Nānak (1469-1539) and in other lumpenproletarian (from German and Latin, ragged “baby-factories”), or underclass, communities from South Asia.

India saw a remarkable fusion of Islamic and indigenous Hindu traditions, giving rise to a rich composite culture.... One of the best representatives of this confluence of traditions is the Bhakti-Sufi movement, a form of personal piety that challenged the hegemony of the religious orthodoxy and crusaded against caste and community divisions and meaningless ritualism.
A wealth of literature abounds with the teachings and writings of these Hindu and Sufi mystics ....
Laxmi G. Tewari, “Common Grounds between Bhajan and Qawwali.” Conference on Music in the World of Islam. Assilah. August 8-13, 2007. Retrieved on August 17, 2013.
Caste distinctions ... had been deeply entrenched in the Indian psyche. One could perhaps argue that without the Bhakti/Sufi movement things would have been far worse.
“General Introduction.” Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology. Volume one. Surveys & Selections. K. Ayyappa Paniker, chief editor. New Delhi, India: Sahitya Akademi. 1997. Page xxxiii.

al-ʾAndalus (الأندلس‎), a word with a disputed etymology, was a medieval Muslim state (roughly, 711-1492 A.D.) which included modern Portugal, Andorra, Spain, and a portion of South France. The Muslim inhabitants of that region have been popularly called the “Moors.” Moreover, according to Shoghi Effendi, the Golden Age of Islām began, partially, in the “outlying territories” of Europe:

... in some of whose [Europe’s] outlying territories have been won some of the most resplendent victories which ushered in the Golden Age of Islám ...
Shoghi Effendi, Citadel of Faith. Page 27.

In my humble opinion, the devotional center, or flowering, of that Golden Age can be found in the heart-centered Bhakti-Ṣūfī movement. Heartfulness Inquiry, The Unicentric Paradigm, and Unities of All Things in general are devotionally anchored in that South Asian confluence of two spiritual streams. Adopting a critical and postcolonial academic perspective to the movement, both Bhakti and Ṣūfī reverential associations in India arose largely from within subaltern (subordinate, oppressed, dominated, or hegemonized) peasant populations, including women, lower-caste Hindūs, and Muslims:

The philosophy of praxis ... does not aim at the peaceful resolution of existing contradictions in history and society but is rather the very theory of these contradictions. It is not the instrument of government of the dominant groups in order to gain the consent of and exercise hegemony [domination] over the subaltern classes; it is the expression of these subaltern classes who want to educate themselves in the art of government and who have an interest in knowing all truths, even the unpleasant ones, and in avoiding the (impossible) deceptions of the upper class and – even more – their own.
Antonio Gramsci, Further Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Translated and edited by David Boothman. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 1995. Pages 395-396.
The subaltern as a concept within political theory gained momentum through the work of the Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci.... Subalternity refers to diminished political voice, organization, and representation on the part of nonelite social groups, their relative invisibility in historical documentation, and their non- or extrahegemonic [powerless] subjection to the power of elites.
Nalini Persram, “Subaltern.” Encyclopedia of Political Theory. Mark Bevir, editor. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. 2010. Pages 1340-1341.

Some insight into the spiritual stature of Gurū Nānak was provided in a letter by the National Spiritual Assembly (NSA) of the Baháʾís of India, dated July 7, 1986, to the State Baháʾí Council of Punjab. That NSA received a letter from the Universal House of Justice, dated October 27, 1985. According to the House of Justice, Gurū Nānak was endowed with a “saintly character.” Moreover, he “was inspired to reconcile the religions of Hinduism and Islam, the followers of which religions had been in violent conflict.” Therefore, the House of Justice blessed Gurū Nānak as a “saint of the highest order”, or, perhaps, a walī Allāh (friend of God).

Additionally, in Hindūism, the Acintyabhedaābheda (Sanskrit for inconceivable oneness and difference) bhakti tradition originated in Gauḍīyā Vaiṣṇava (Sanskrit for Viṣṇu or Vishnu worship in the Gauḍa territory of modern-day Bangladesh and Bengal, India). It was founded by Caitanya Mahāprabhu (1486–1534 A.D.) and more recently popularized, in the West, by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Abhaya Caraṇāravinda Bhaktīvedānta Svāmī Prabhupāda, 1896-1977 A.D.). Caitanya’s teaching, in the Bhakti-Ṣūfī movement, was uncomplicated. Many later leaders complicated it.

The following is a complete translation of the only known text authored by Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Śrī Śikṣāṣṭakam (Sanskrit for an instruction in eight stanzas):

Glory to the Śrī-Kṛṣṇā-saṅkīrtana [Sanskrit for Śrī Kṛṣṇā chanting], which cleanses the heart of all the dust accumulated for years and extinguishes the fire of conditional life, of repeated birth and death. This saṅkīrtana [Sanskrit for chanting] movement is the prime benediction for humanity at large because it spreads the rays of the benediction moon. It is the life of all transcendental knowledge. It increases the ocean of transcendental bliss, and it enables us to fully taste the nectar for which we are always anxious.
O my Lord, Your holy name alone can render all benediction to living beings, and thus You have hundreds and millions of names, like Kṛṣṇā and Govinda [Sanskrit for protector of cows]. In these transcendental names You have invested all Your transcendental energies. There are not even hard and fast rules for chanting these names. O my Lord, out of kindness You enable us to easily approach You by Your holy names, but I am so unfortunate that I have no attraction for them.
One should chant the holy name of the Lord in a humble state of mind, thinking oneself lower than the straw in the street; one should be more tolerant than a tree, devoid of all sense of false prestige, and should be ready to offer all respect to others. In such a state of mind one can chant the holy name of the Lord constantly.
O almighty Lord, I have no desire to accumulate wealth, nor do I desire beautiful women, nor do I want any number of followers. I only want Your causeless devotional service, birth after birth.
O son of Mahārāja Nanda [Sanskrit for Great or Exalted King of Joy, namely, Kṛṣṇā’s custodial or “foster” father], I am Your eternal servitor, yet somehow or other I have fallen into the ocean of birth and death. Please pick me up from this ocean of death and place me as one of the atoms at Your lotus feet.
O my Lord, when will my eyes be decorated with tears of love flowing constantly when I chant Your holy name? When will my voice choke up, and when will the hairs of my body stand on end at the recitation of Your name?
O Govinda! Feeling Your separation, I am considering a moment to be like twelve years or more. Tears are flowing from my eyes like torrents of rain, and I am feeling all vacant in the world in Your absence.
I know no one but Kṛṣṇā as my Lord, and He shall remain so even if He handles me roughly by His embrace or makes me brokenhearted by not being present before me. He is completely free to do anything and everything, for He is always my worshipful Lord, unconditionally.
Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Śrī Śikṣāṣṭakam.

Ḥaḍrat Sulṭān Bāhū, as a Ṣūfī from the South Asian subcontinent, was another beautiful exemplar of that traditionally commingled, or interfaith, devotional experience. Like Gurū Nānak and Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Bāhū became a brilliant luminary of the Bhakti-Ṣūfī movement (approximately 800-1700 A.D.):

The Bhakti-Sufi movement was ... [a] major pan-Indian articulation ... of subaltern dissent.
The spokesmen/women of the movement mostly came from the subaltern or marginalised sections of society and were workers, women or Muslims.... Sultan Bahu ... and other Sufi poets were Muslims by birth.
K. Satchidanandan, “Between Saints and Secularists.” Belonging. Volume II. Issue 3. Retrieved on August 17, 2013.
An important landmark in the cultural history of medieval India was the silent revolution in society brought about by a galaxy of socio-religious reformers, a revolution known as the Bhakti Movement. This movement was responsible for many rites and rituals associated with the worship of God by Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs of Indian subcontinent. For example, Kirtan at a Hindu Temple, Qawaali at a Dargah (by Muslims), and singing of Gurbani at a Gurdwara are all derived from the Bhakti movement of medieval India (800-1700)....
Sufism represents the inward or esoteric side of Islam or the mystical dimension of Muslim religion. However, the Sufi saints [al-awliyāʾ Allāh, friends of God] transcending all religious and communal distinctions, worked for promoting the interest of humanity at large. The Sufis were a class of philosophers remarkable for their religious catholicity..... It [Ṣūfism] rebelled against all forms of religious formalism, orthodoxy, falsehood and hypocrisy and endeavoured to create a new world order in which spiritual bliss was the only and the ultimate goal....
... Sultan Bahu (ca 1628 – 1691) was a Muslim Sufi and saint [al-walī Allāh, friend of God] who founded the Sarwari Qadiri Sufi order [Sārvarī Qādirīyah Ṣūfī Ṭarīqa]. Sultan Bahu was born in Anga, Soon Valley, in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Like many other Sufi saints of South Asia Sultan Bahu was a prolific writer. More than forty books on Sufism are attributed to him, mostly in Persian.
Arun Joshi, Bhakti Movement in India and Punjab. November 26, 2012. Retrieved on August 18, 2013.

I have been a Baháʾí since 1970. I am not a Muslim. Nevertheless, I have been inspired by the deep Ṣūfism (Arabic, Taṣawwuf) of the heart in the poetry and prose of Sulṭān Bāhū. While a mystic by temperament, Bāhū also emphasized the importance of faithfulness to al-Šarʿī’a (Arabic for the Prescription or legal code) within the beautiful religion of Islām. In my view, al-walī Allāh (the friend of God or saint), Sulṭān Bāhū, is among the finest fruits of the religion of Islām. He has been accurately designated, al-Sulṭān al-ʿArifīn (the king or chief of mystic knowers or gnōstics). I have lovingly and sincerely cherished his blessed soul during my inner communions with him.

Acting from the world beyond, beloved Bāhū, peace and blessings be upon him, believe he was among the spiritual sources of the visionary flashing white lights, lightning bolts, or chalices of pure light. Through Bāhū, the discovery of Ṣūfī meditation, and Ṣūfism (Taṣawwuf) more broadly, became, to my understanding, the Blessed Beauty’s chosen instrument of healing from my heart-based deficits as an Autist. Indeed, although I only recognized the eminent Bāhū’s influence upon me in 2011, he may have been with me, guiding me, for my entire life.

The Blessed Perfection led me to Himself, I believe, through a Ṣūfī-type meditation. When I began practicing it in 2010, dear Bāhū, a Muslim during the Islāmic Dispensation, entered my heart and, I strongly feel, showed me the way to my Lord, Bahāʾ. For some inexplicable reason of the heart, I was drawn, above all else, to beloved Bāhū while studying Ṣūfism. My first sensations of empathy, as an Autist, revolved around, first, the pure soul of Bāhū and, second, my adoration for the Blessed Seal Muḥammad as the Source of Ṣūfism. He has been the Object of such misunderstanding. By turning to this man of the heart, I got my own. As Bāhū wrote in one of his inspiring treatises:

O seeker! Thou hast requested permission [Arabic, iǧāza] for mystical knowledge [Arabic, maʿrifat] from me ....
I will show thee Allāh as nearer to thee than thy jugular (or life) vein [Persian, šāh-rag, king vein].
Ḥaḍrat Sulṭān Bāhū, Nūr al-Hudā: Light of Guidance. Translation significantly modified by Mark A. Foster. Page 2.
Whoso shalt study this book, by day and by night, with sincerity, certitude, and conviction will become cognizant of the divine [Arabic, ilāhī] secrets. He hath no need of instruction [Arabic, talqin] and teaching [Arabic, taʿlīm] from a living guide [Arabic, muršid].
Ḥaḍrat Sulṭān Bāhū, Nūr al-Hudā: Light of Guidance. Translation significantly modified by Mark A. Foster. Page 3.

Once Bāhū rejected disunity or dualism for unity or nonduality, he was emancipated:

Neither Sunnī nor Šīʿah am I.
Heartburn doth afflict me with one as with the other.
The moment I cast them aside, my pathway was arid no longer. I found myself immersed in the ocean of divine Unity.
Many souls, poorly prepared for that which awaited them, dived into the ocean and drowned. Few swam successfully to the journey’s end.
Only those who held steadfastly to the Master’s hand reached the heavenly shore in safety.
Ḥaḍrat Sulṭān Bāhū, Kalām-i Bāhū (discourse of Bāhū). Translation significantly modified by Mark A. Foster.

Since I was a child, I have been passionate about both Islāmicate, or Islāmically contextualized, thought and Indian traditions, including Hindūism or Sanātana Dharma (Sanskrit for eternal support), Sikhism, and Sūrat Śābda Yoga. Following a meditation on August 17, 2013, I realized that my lifelong inner connection with dear Bāhū might have kindled these twofold interests. Current illustrations include Ṣūfī Information Central and Heartfulness Inquiry, my love for British phliosopher Roy Bhaskar’s philosophy of metaReality. This latest version of his Critical Realism was significantly influenced by a journey toward rediscovering his own Hindū heritage, including bhakti yoga.

“Islamdom” is ... the society in which the Muslims and their faith are recognized as prevalent and socially dominant .... Sometimes the phrase “the Islamic world” is used much in this sense....
... The adjective “Islamic” ... must be restricted to “of or pertaining to Islam” .... Unfortunately, there seems to be no adjective in use for ... the society or culture of Islamdom [the Islāmic world].... I have been driven to invent a term, “Islamicate”.... [It] would refer ... to the social and cultural complex historically associated with Islam and the Muslims, both among Muslims themselves and even when found among non-Muslims.
Michael G.S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam. Volume 1. The Classical Age of Islam. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. 1977. Pages 58-59.
The first part of Śābda Yoga meditation begins with sitting still, quiet, eyes closed down, mentally repeating the 5 [initiatory] Names and lovingly gazing into the middle of the darkness lying in front of us, which will develop into concentration on the inner light. Repetition ... is continuous during this. Breathing is natural and free flowing without paying any attention to it. Breath is not interfered with. It goes on by itself....
The second part of Śābda Yoga meditation involves listening to the Sound Current.... [O]ne listens to the inner Sound Current coming at first from the right side and ultimately from the top of the head ....
Sūrat Śābda Yoga: The Yoga of the Sound Current.
... all of the four traditional yogas are necessary:
Jnana Yoga—the path of wisdom;
Bhakti Yoga—the path of love or devotion;
Hatha Yoga—the path of physical strength or grace; and
Karma Yoga—the path of action or service.
Roy Bhaskar, The Philosophy of metaReality: Creativity, Love and Freedom Classical Texts in Critical Realism. New York: Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group). 2012. Page 182.

Specifically, I have been attracted to the Bhakti-Ṣūfī movement throughout my life. Before I became a Baháʾí, I seriously considered becoming a Sikh. I was deeply disappointed after discovering, through mail correspondence with the Sikh Temple in Stockton, CA, that baptized Sikhs needed to carry a sword and to wear both a turban and long underwear draped around the knees. Since I was already being bullied as an Autist, such unusual accoutrements, especially in the gym locker room, would have only made matters worse. I was not told that not all Sikhs follow those conventions. Perhaps dear Bāhū was protecting me for Baháʾuʾlláh.

Although I was unsuccessful at astral projection or out-of-body experiences, I did come close to joining the neo-Sikh Eckankar organization. It incorporates a similar practice to astral projection. This Americanized branch of the highly schismatic Sūrat Śābda Yoga (Arabized Sanskrit for union through attention to the word) was founded by John “Paul” Twitchell (1909-1971) in 1965. As I recall, only a minor postal miscommunication between me, at around thirteen-years old, and the headquarters (then in Las Vegas, NV), possibly through Bāhū’s intercession, prevented me from becoming a member. Their return letter may have dampened my enthusiasm, but I had already lost interest.

Yet, in my continuing search for angelic contact, I was initiated, after becoming a Baháʾí, into three other Sūrat Śābda Yoga “divisions” or groups: Sri Sri Thakur Anukulchandra Satsang (Śrī Śrī Ṭhakura Anukulācandra Satsaṅga, named for the founder of the organization, 1888-1969), Sant Mat (Sanskrit, Saṅt Mata, the realized one’s doctrine or path), and Spiritual Freedom Satsang (an offshoot of Twitchell’s Eckankar). Any movement, like Sūrat Śābda Yoga, which promotes a primary reliance upon subjective knowledge, or gnōsis, of alleged beings, locations, lights, and sounds in supposedly higher dimensions of existence can rapidly factionalize.

As a matter of record, his angelic presence Sulṭān Bāhū, a Punjābī, was born in Angāh (in the present-day Pākistānī Punjāb), around 1628 A.D., and he died about 1691. His mausoleum is located in Gaṛh Mahārāja (Hindūstānī or “Hindī-Urdū” for Fort of the Great King, which is now in Pākistān). Etymologically, bā is the Fārsī/Persian preposition for “with,” while hū is the Arabic pronoun for “he” (referring here to God). Therefore, Bāhū, which was Sulṭān Bāhū’s given name (from his mother, Bībī Rāstī, Persian for madam truth), can be translated as “with God.” His name came to define his noble character. As Bāhū wrote, in one of his poems, referring to the modest spelling differences between two letters:

With one dot, Bā Hū becomes Yā Hū [O He]....
And Bāhū is always steeped in the remembrance of Yā Hū.

Bāhū is regarded as al-imām (Arabic for the pathfinder or founder) of the Sārvarī Qādirīyah Ṣūfī Ṭarīqat (Persianized Arabic for order). Although he would not designate an heir, much as Rebbe Naḥman (1772-1810) of Bratslav Ḥasidic Judaism refused to establish a dynasty (Hebrew, hā-ṣadiqîm, the righteous ones), each has had one or more claimants to succession. Qādirīyah is named after the traditional founder of the original order, ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Gīlānī. Al-Qādir (the capable or competent one) is one of the ninety-nine names of Allāh. Sārvarī (Persian, Hindī, and Urdū for chiefship) refers here to the ʿUwaysī transmission, under the sovereignty of the Blessed Muḥammad, to Bāhū.

Briefly, the word, “ʿUwaysī,” was adopted from the reported case of His Blessed Presence Muḥammad’s contemporary, ʿUways al-Qaranī. According to traditional accounts, he swore or, literally, “sold” (bayʿah), with a metaphorical handshake (more precisely, a handclasp), his allegiance to the Prophet of Islām wholly in the world of spirits (al-ʿālam al-arwāḥ). The two men never met physically. Although the circumstances surrounding the life of ʿUways al-Qaranī may be legendary, or partially so, he has inspired individuals to claim inner spiritual direction, and sometimes even authority over Ṣūfī orders, as a result of similar experiences.

In an ʿUwaysī transmission, authorization (al-iǧāza) is allegedly conveyed, entirely within the heavenly realms, by an outwardly unrelated entity (living, deceased, or even mythological). They have included the dear Prophet Muḥammad, the legendary al-Hiḍr (the Green One), and departed Ṣūfī shaykhs (al-šuyuh, elders), such as the founders of orders (al-ayimma or “imāms,” pathfinders). Soul to soul, sometimes within the otherworldly states of inspired dreams (al-manāmāt) and visions (al-ruʾan), vows of Ṣūfī loyalty, like the oaths of fealty owed to a European feudal lord in the Middle Ages, will be pledged one to another.

Ḥaḍrat Sulṭān Bāhū, God bless his soul, formulated taṣavvur-i ism-i ḏāt (Persianized Arabic for conceptualizing the personal name of God) or, in Arabic, al-taṣawwur al-ism al-ḏāt. The discipline involves visualizing the word, (Allāh), being inscribed upon one’s own heart (Arabic, al-qalb). When, through the intercession of the exalted Bāhū, I was inspired, resurrected, and lovingly emancipated as an Autist, I incorporated my own revised version of the exercise into the methodology of Heartfulness Inquiry. That spiritual application remains the devotional center of Unities of All Things™.

Intriguingly, before I was even consciously aware of beloved Bāhū, I sought out and received personal instruction from an authorized disciple of Gohar Shahi (Persian and Urdū, Guhar Šāhī, Jewel Imperial). He represented the U.S.-based organization, the American Ṣūfī Institute (Devil’s Lake, ND). It has since been renamed as al-Markāz-i Rūḥānī Qādrī, the Spiritual Center of Qādrī (al-Qādirīyah Ṣūfism). This group, presently located in the Jamshoro District (Urdū, Ḏilā-i Ǧāmšūrū) of Sindh, Pākistān, regards Gohar Shahi as a Sunnī Muslim, not as a mahdī or messiah, who welcomed people from all religions.

Gohar Shahi taught various meditative practices, including a type of taṣavvur-i ism-i ḏāt. As I discovered much later, Shahi, after claiming to have an inward, mystical experience with Bāhū, founded a similarly ʿUwaysī branch of Sārvarī Qādirīyah Ṣūfī Ṭarīqa, al-Qādirīyah al-Muntahī (the Qādirīyah order of the Adept), and he developed a set of teachings and meditative practice called the Religion of God (in Urdūized, as well as Persianized, Arabic, Dīn-i Ilāhī). He was, I feel, my personal gate to Ḥaḍrat Sulṭān Bāhū. Born in 1941, and now arguably deceased (2001 or 2003), Shahi is, I believe, my fellow traveller under Bāhū’s watchful eye:

When Hazrat Gohar Shahi was at about the age of thirty four, at one night Hazrat Bari Imam (tomb is in Islamabad) appeared before him and said: “My son your time has come, you must go to the shrine of Sultan Bahu to receive the Spiritual Knowledge.” Hazrat Gohar Shahi then left every thing and went to shrine of Hazrat Sultan Bahu. Sultan Bahu appeared before him and advised to read and act upon his book Nurul Huda (Light of Guidance) and go to Sehwan Sharif, Distt. Dadu, Pakistan. Hazrat Gohar Shahi read the book Nurul Huda and went to Sehwan Sharif for self-purification and peace of heart....
Shah Sahib then left his work, family and parents and went to Shorkot, where under the blessful supervision of Sakhi Sultan Bahu sahib [Gohar Shahi] made the book Noor-Al-Huda (a book written by Sultan Bahu Sahib), his journey’s companion. He then went to Sehwan Sharif for self-mortification and peace of heart and spent a period of three years in the mountains of Sehwan Sharif and the forest of Laal Baagh in self-Purification. Thereafter pursuant to a revelation Shah Sahib [Gohar Shahi] went to Jaam Shorow where he spent six months in a hut behind the Textbook Board Building, henceforth, with Almighty Allah’s will, His Holiness Shah Sahib started to shower Almighty Allah’s creation with his benevolence.
Gohar Shahi. 2009. Retrieved on September 8, 2013.
I have never claimed to be Mehdi. The false claimant is misled and ill-fated. However, I have elaborated the signs of True Mehdi. As Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) has a seal of prophet at his back. Likewise on the back of Mehdi there will be a seal of Mehdi which will be embossed by veins and who so ever will posses this sign we will accept him has Imam Mehdi.
Gohar Shahi, A Great Spiritual Personality. October, 1999. Retrieved on September 8, 2013.

On September 8, 2013, during a reflection, I realized that Bāhū reached out, though Gohar Shahi, and connected more deeply with me. Shahi was, at the time, still in this world:

Furthermore, as a child, I referred to a ventriloquial team, with myself and my younger sibling, as The Karachis. At the time, I was unaware of the origin of the term, but I must have heard it mentioned somewhere. In retrospect, I do not know why I did not call us, simply, The Fosters. Karāčī or Karachi (Urdū, کراچی), a bustling metropolis, is the most populous city in Pākistān and the third largest in the world. Then, on October 6, 2013, it occurred to me, during another reflection, that Ḥaḍrat Sulṭān Bāhū, who lived in modern-day Pākistān, was drawing me close to him.

Modern India has changed. Beloved Shoghi Effendi quoted from His divine Presence Baháʾuʾlláh and described secularism as a menace:

“The vitality of men’s belief in God,” Baháʾuʾlláh has testified, “is dying out in every land; nothing short of His wholesome medicine can ever restore it. The corrosion of ungodliness is eating into the vitals of human society; what else but the Elixir of His potent Revelation can cleanse and revive it?”...
This menace of secularism that has attacked Islám and is undermining its remaining institutions, that has invaded Persia, has penetrated into India, and raised its triumphant head in Turkey, has already manifested itself in both Europe and America, and is, in varying degrees, and under various forms and designations, challenging the basis of every established religion, and in particular the institutions and communities identified with the Faith of Jesus Christ.
Shoghi Effendi, The World Order of Baháʾuʾlláh. Page 181.
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